Professor Wagner Marcenes, BDS, MSc

Director of Institute of Dentistry Graduate School

Contact details

Wagner Marcenes completed his PhD programme in Epidemiology and Public Health at University College London in 1991, and was appointed lecturer in oral epidemiology. In 2002, he was appointed Professor of Oral Epidemiology by the University of London, and the first professor of oral epidemiology in the UK. Currently he is the Director of Graduate Studies at the Institute of Dentistry. Internationally acclaimed in his field, Marcenes and co-workers were the winners of the 2008 prestigious IADR/AADR William J. Gies Award for best Clinical Research. He has served the IADR as International Director of the BSHSR group, and as a member of the editorial board of Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, and Dental Traumatology.

Publications:

Key Publications

Marcenes W.S and Sheiham, A. (1992). The relationship between work stress and oral health status. Journal of Social Science and Medicine. 35: 1511-1520.

Marcenes, W.S. and Sheiham, A. (1993). Composite indicators of dental health: Functioning teeth and the number of sound-equivalent teeth (T-Health). Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 21: 374-378.

Marcenes W.S. and Sheiham, A. (1996). The relationship between marital quality and oral health status. Psychology and Health. 11: 357-369.

Abegg, C., Marcenes, W., Croucher, R. and Sheiham, A. (1999). The relationship between tooth cleaning behaviour and flexibility of working time schedule. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 26:448-452.

Sheiham, A. Steele J,G., Marcenes, W., Lowe, C., Finch, S.,Bates, C.J., Premice, A., Walls A.W.G. (2001). The relationship between dental status, nutrient intake and nutritional status, amongst older people. Journal of Dental Research, 80:408-413.

Pattussi, M.P., Marcenes, W., Croucher, R., Sheiham, A. (2001). Social deprivation, income inequality, social cohesion and dental caries in Brazilian school children. Social Science and Medicine, 53:915-925.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W., Bartley M. and Sheiham, A. (2003). A life course approach to assessing causes of dental caries: the relationship between biological, socio-economic and psychological conditions and caries in adolescents. Caries Research. 37:319-26.

Gamboa, A.B., Hughes, F. and Marcenes, W. (2005). The relationship between Emotional Intelligence and initial response to a standardized periodontal treatment protocol: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 32:702-7.

Sanders AE, Slade GD, Turrell G, Spencer AJ, Marcenes W. (2007) Does psychological stress mediate social inequalities in tooth loss? Journal of Dental Research. 86:1166-1170.

Bernabe E, Marcenes W. (2011). Income inequality and tooth loss in the United States. Journal of Dental Research, 90:724-9.

 

Publications since 1992

Marcenes W.S and Sheiham, A. (1992). The relationship between work stress and oral health status. Journal of Social Science and Medicine. 35: 1511-1520.

Marcenes, W.S., Croucher, R.E., Sheiham, A. and Marmot, M.G. (1993). The relationship between self-reported oral symptoms and life events. Psychology and Health. 8: 123-134.

Marcenes, W.S. and Sheiham, A. (1993). Composite indicators of dental health: Functioning teeth and the number of sound-equivalent teeth (T-Health). Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 21: 374-378.

Braga, W. and Marcenes, W.S. (1995). E-mail: a new tool for data collection in dental public health. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 23: 379-80.

Marcenes W.S. and Sheiham, A. (1996). The relationship between marital quality and oral health status. Psychology and Health. 11: 357-369.

Croucher, R., Marcenes, W.S., Torres, M.C.M.B., Hughes, F. and Sheiham, A. (1997). The relationship between life events and periodontitis, a case-control study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 24: 39-43.

Croucher, R., Osborne, D., Sheiham, A. and Marcenes, W. (1998) Burnout and issues of the work environment reported by general dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. Community Dental Health 15:40-43.

Marcenes, W., Pankhurst, C.L. and Lewis, D.A. (1998). Oral health behaviour and the prevalence of oral manifestations of HIV infection in a group of HIV positive adults. International Dental Journal, 48: 557-62.

Steele, J.G., Sheiham, A., Marcenes, W., Walls, A.W.G. (1998). Diet and Nutrition in Great Britain: summary of main findings. Gerodontology, 15: 99-106.

Marcenes, W., Beiruti, N., Tayfour, D. and Issa, S. (1999). Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries to permanent incisors of school-children aged 9 to 12 in Damascus, Syria.  Endodontics and Dental Traumatology, 15: 117-123

Pearson, N., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W. and O’Farrell, M. (1999). Prevalence of oral lesions among a sample of Bangladeshi medical users age 40 years and over living in Tower Hamlets UK. British Dental Journal, 186:517-521.

Williams, D., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W.  and O’Farrell, M. (1999). The prevalence of dental erosion in 14-year-old schoolchildren living in Tower Hamlets and Hackney. International Dental Journal, 49:211-216.

Sheiham, A., Steele, J.G., Marcenes, W., Finch, S., Walls, A.W.G. (1999). The relationship between oral health status and Body Mass Index among older people; a national survey of older people in Great Britain Gerodontology, 15: 99-106.

Abegg, C., Marcenes, W., Croucher, R. and Sheiham, A. (1999). The relationship between tooth cleaning behaviour and flexibility of working time schedule. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 26:448-452.

Furtado, A., Traebert, J.L., Marcenes, W. (1999). Prevalence of oral diseases and treatment need in Capao Alto, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Revista da ABO Nacional, 7: 226-230.

Freysleben, G.R., Peres, M.A.A., Marcenes, W. (2000). Dental caries prevalence and mean DMF-T among 12-13 year old children in 1971 and 1997 in Florianopolis, Brazil. Revista de Saude Publica, 34:304-308.

Marcenes, W., Alessi, O.N. and Traebert, J.L. (2000). Causes and prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent incisors of schoolchildren aged 12 years in Jaragua do Sul, Brazil. International Dental Journal, 50:87-92.

Caldas, A.F., Marcenes, W., Sheiham, A. (2000). Reasons for tooth extraction in a Brazilian population. International Dental Journal, 50:267-273.

Pau, A.K.H., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W. (2000). Perceived inability to cope and care-seeking in patients with toothache – a qualitative study. British Dental Journal, 189:500-502.

Bonecker, M.J.S., Marcenes, W., Sheiham, A., Guedes-Pinto, A.C., Walter, L.R.F. (2000). [Caries reduction between 1995, 1997, and 1999 in pre-school children in Diadema Brazil]. Jornal Brasileiro de Odontopediatria e Odontologia do Bebe, 3:334-340.

Marcenes, W. and Murray, S. (2000). Social deprivation and traumatic dental injuries in 14-year-old schoolchildren in Newham, East London. Dental Traumatology, 17:17-21.

Walls, A.W., Steele, J.G., Sheiham, A., Marcenes, W. and Moynihan, P. (2000): Oral health and nutrition in older people. J Public Health Dent 60, 304-7.

Peres, M.A.A., Traebert, J.L. and Marcenes, W. (2000). [Calibration of examiners for dental caries epidemiologic studies]. Revista de Saude Publica, 17:153-159.

Abegg, C., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2000). How do routines of daily activities and flexibility of daily activities affect behaviour? Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 60:154-158.

Nicolau, B., Srisilapanan, P. and Marcenes, W. (2000). Number of teeth and risk of root caries. Gerodontology, 17:91-95.

Cortes, M.I.S., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2000) Prevalence and correlates of traumatic dental injuries to the teeth of schoolchildren aged 9 to 14 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Dental Traumatology, 17:22-26.

Pearson, N., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W. and O’Farrell, M. (2001). Dental health and treatment needs among a sample of Traebert Bangladeshi medical users aged 40 years and over living in Tower Hamlets, UK. International Dental Journal, 51:23-9.

Pearson, N., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W. and O’Farrell, M. (2001). Prevalence of oral lesions among a sample of Bangladeshi adults aged 40 years and over living in Tower Hamlets, UK. International Dental Journal, 51:30-4.

Maciel, S.M., Marcenes, W., Sheiham, A. (2001). The relationship between sweetness preference, levels of salivary mutans streptococci and caries experience in Brazilian pre-school children. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 11:123-130.

Sheiham, A. Steele J,G., Marcenes, W., Lowe, C., Finch, S.,Bates, C.J., Premice, A., Walls A.W.G. (2001). The relationship between dental status, nutrient intake and nutritional status, amongst older people. Journal of Dental Research, 80:408-413.

Matos, D.L., Lima e Costa, M.F.F., Guerra, H.L., Marcenes, W. (2001) [The Bambui project: a population-based study of factors associated with regular dental care in adults]. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 17: 109-118, 2001.

Sheiham, A. Steele J,G., Marcenes, W., Tsakos, G., Finch, S., Walls A. (2001). Prevalence of impacts of dental and oral disorders and their effects on eating among older people; a national survey in Great Britain. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 29:195-203.

Traebert, J., Peres, M.A., Galesso, E.R., Zabot, N.E., Marcenes, W. (2001). [Prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among children aged six and 12]. Revista de Saude Publica, 35: 283-288.

Gesser, H.C., Peres, M.A.A., Marcenes, W. (2001) [Gingival and periodontal conditions associated with socioeconomic factors]. Revista de Saude Publica, 35: 289-293.

Pattussi, M.P., Marcenes, W., Croucher, R., Sheiham, A. (2001). Social deprivation, income inequality, social cohesion and dental caries in Brazilian school children. Social Science and Medicine, 53:915-925.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2001). Prevalence, causes and correlates of traumatic dental injuries among 13-year-olds in Brazil. Dental Traumatology, 17: 213-217.

Marcenes, W., Zabot, N.E. and Traebert, J. (2001). Socio-economic correlates of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors in schoolchildren aged 12 years in Blumenau, Brazil. Dental Traumatology, 17:222-226.

Maciel, S.M., Marcenes, W., Watt, R.G. and Sheiham, A. (2001). The relationship between sweetness preference and dental caries in mother/child pairs from Maringa-Pr, Brazil. International Dental Journal, 51:83-88.

Melas, F., Marcenes, W., Wright, P.S. (2001). Oral health impacts on daily performance in patients with implant stabilised overdentures and patients with conventional complete dentures. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, 16:700-712.

Steele J.G., Sheiham A., Marcenes, W., Fay, N., Walls A. (2001). Clinical and behavioural risk indicators for root caries in older people. Gerodontology, 18:95-101.

Tsakos, G., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2001). Evaluation of a modified version of the index of oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) in elderly populations in two European countries. Gerodontology, 18: 121-130. 

Tsakos, G., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2001). Cross-cultural differences in oral impacts on daily performances between Greek and British older adults. Community Dental Health, 18:209-213.

Marcenes, W., Freysleben, G.R. and Peres, M.A. (2001). The contribution of changing diagnostic criteria toward the reduction of caries between 1971 and 1997 in children attending the same school in Florianopolis, Brazil. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 29:449-455.

Peres, K.G.A., Traebert, E.S.A., Marcenes, W. (2002). [Differences between normative criteria and self-perception in the assessment of malocclusion]. Revista de Saude Publica, 36: 230-236.

Goncalves, E.R., Peres, M.A.A., Marcenes, W. (2002) [Dental caries and socio-economic conditions: a cross-sectional study among 18-year-old males in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil]. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 18: 699-706.

Traebert, J., Furtado, A., Suares, C.S., Onofri, D., Gomes, D., Marcenes, W., (2002). [Prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren in four small cities in Brazil]. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 18 :817-821.

Cortes, M.I.S., Sheiham, A. and Marcenes, W. (2002). The impact of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth on oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year old in Brazilian schoolchildren. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30: 193-198.

Bonecker, M., Marcenes, W., Sheiham, A. (2002). Caries reduction between 1995, 1997 and 1999 in pre-school children in Diadema, Brazil. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 12: 183-188.

Marcenes, W., Murray, S. (2002). Deprivation, changes in prevalence and treatment needed due to traumatic dental injuries among 14-year-old children in Newham, London: a deprived area. Community Dental Health, 19: 104-108.

Sheiham, A., Steele, J.G., Marcenes, W., Finch, S. and Walls A.W.G. (2002). The relationship between dental status and body weight in elderly British people: a national survey of older people in Great Britain. British Dental Journal, 192:703-706.

Odoi, R., Croucher, R., Wong, F. and Marcenes, W. (2002). The relationship between problem behaviour and traumatic dental injury amongst children aged 7-15 years old. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30:392-396.

Matos, D.L., Lima e Costa, M.F.F., Guerra, H.L., Marcenes, W. (2002) [Bambui project: An assessment of private, trade union and public health services]. Cadernos de Saude Publica. (In press, accepted November 2001).

De Sousa, M.L.R., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2002). The caries reduction effect of fluoride mouthrinse alone and combined with fluoride gel in a population living in an optimally fluoridated community and consuming fluoridated toothpaste. International Dental Journal, 52: 315-320.

Pau, A.K.H., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W., Rahman, R., Shahjahan, S. (2003). Tobacco cessation, oral pain and psychological distress in Bangladeshi women. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 5: 419-23.

Crowley, E.F.M., O’Brien, G, Marcenes, W. (2003). School league tables: a new population based predictor of dental restorative treatment need. Community Dental Health, 20: 78-82.

Marcenes W, Steele JG, Sheiham A, Walls AWG (2003). The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status and body mass index amongst older people. Cadernos de Saude Publica. 19: 809-16.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W. and Sheiham, A. (2003).  The relationship between traumatic dental injury and adolescents’ development along the life course. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology 31: 306-313.

Croucher, R., Pau, A.K.H., Jerreat, M., Begum, S., Marcenes, W (2003). Oral health of Bangladeshi women tobacco-with-paan users and self reported oral pain following tobacco cessation. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 63:235-9.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W., Bartley M. and Sheiham, A. (2003). A life course approach to assessing causes of dental caries: the relationship between biological, socio-economic and psychological conditions and caries in adolescents. Caries Research. 37:319-26.

Caldas Jr, A.F., Silveira J. and Marcenes, W. (2003). The impact of restorative treatment on tooth loss prevention. Brazilian Dental Journal. 17: 166-70.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W., Hardy R. and Sheiham, A. (2003). A life course approach to assess the relationship between social and psychological circumstances and gingival status in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 30: 1038-1045.

Pau, A.K.H., Croucher, R., Marcenes, W (2003). Prevalence estimates and associated factors for dental pain: a review. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry. 1: 209-220.

Traebert J, Almeida IC, Marcenes W (2003). Etiology of traumatic dental injuries in 11 to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry. 4: 317-23.

Tsakos G, Marcenes W, Sheiham A (2004). The relationship between clinical dental status and oral impacts in an elderly population. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry. 2:211-20.

Ribeiro, MFP, Marcenes, W, Croucher, R, Sheiham, A (2004). The prevalence and causes of maxilofacial fractures in patients attending accident and emergency departments in Recife-Brazil. International Dental Journal. 54: 47-51.

Traebert J, Almeida ICS, C Garghetti, Marcenes W.  (2004). Prevalence, treatment needs and predisposing factors to traumatic dental injuries to the permanent dentition in 11-13 years-old schoolchildren. Cadernos de Saude Publica. 20: 403-10.

Lacerda JT, Simionato EM, Peres KG, Peres MA, Traebert J, Marcenes W (2004). Dental pain as the reason for the last dental visit among workers in Brazil. Revista de Saude Publica. 38:453-8.

Pinheiro A, Marcenes W,  Zakrzewska JM, Robinson PG (2004). Dental and oral lesions in HIV infected patients: a study in Brazil. International Dental Journal. 54:131-7.

Russell M, Lazenbatt A, Freeman R, Marcenes W (2004). Child physical abuse: health professionals' perceptions, diagnosis and responses. British Journal of Community Nurse. 9:332-8.

Muirhead, V. and Marcenes, W (2004). An ecological study of caries experience, school performance and material deprivation in 5-year-old state primary schoolchildren. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology. 32:265-70.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W., Bartley M. and Sheiham, A. (2005). Associations between socio-economic circumstances at two stages of life and adolescents’ oral health. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 65:14-20.

Nicolau, B., Marcenes, W., Allison P. and Sheiham, A. (2005). The life course approach: explaining the association between height and dental caries in Brazil adoloscents. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology. 33:93-8.

Traebert J, Marcenes W, Kreutz JV, Oliveira R, Piazza CH, Peres MA (2005). Brazilian Dentists' Restorative Treatment Decisions. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry. 3:53-60.

Gamboa, A.B., Hughes, F. and Marcenes, W. (2005). The relationship between Emotional Intelligence and initial response to a standardized periodontal treatment protocol: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 32:702-7.

Pau A, Croucher R, Marcenes W, Leung T (2005). Development and validation of a dental pain screening questionnaire. Pain, 119:75-81. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T0K-4HK5SYW-3/2/7ff107ccddf08b32ed92ce5cee3da956

Sanders AE, Slade GD, Turrell G, Spencer AJ, Marcenes W (2006). The shape of the socioeconomic oral health gradient: implications for theoretical explanations. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 34: 310-9.

Traebert J, Bittencourt DD, Peres KG, Peres MA, Lacerda JT, Marcenes, W. (2006). Aetiology and rates of treatment of traumatic dental injuries among 12-year-old school children in a town in Southern Brazil. Dental Traumatology, 22:173-8.

Tsakos G, Marcenes W, Sheiham A (2006). Clinical correlates of oral health-related quality of life: evidence from a national sample of British older people. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 114:391-395.

Bostanci N, Ilgenli T, Pirhan DC, Clarke FM, Marcenes W, Atilla G, Hughes FJ, McKay IJ (2006). Relationship between IL-1A polymorphisms and gingival overgrowth in renal transplant recipients receiving Cyclosporin A. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 33:771-778.

Hughes FJ, Syed M, Koshy B, Marinho V, Bostanci N, McKay IJ, Croucher RE, Marcenes W. (2006). Prognostic factors in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis: I. Clinical features and initial outcome. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 33:663-670.

Hughes FJ, Syed M, Koshy B, Bostanci N, McKay IJ, Marcenes W, Croucher RE. (2006). Prognostic factors in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis: II. Effects of smoking on initial outcome. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 33:671-676.

Johal A, Cheung M, Marcenes W. (2007). The impact of two different malocclusion traits on quality of life. British Dental Journal. Jan 19:E6. [Epub ahead of print].

Pau A, Croucher RE, Marcenes W. (2007) Demographic and socio-economic correlates of dental pain among adults in the United Kingdom, 1998. British Dental Journal, 12:202-209.

Oliveira LB, Marcenes W, Ardenghi TM, Sheiham A, Bönecker M. (2007). Traumatic dental injuries and associated factors among Brazilian preschool children. Dental Traumatology, 23:76-81.

Turrell, G, Sanders AE, Slade GD, Spencer AJ, Marcenes W. (2007). The independent contribution of neighborhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position to self-reported oral health: a multilevel analysis. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology, 35: 195-206.

Traebert J, Wesoloski C, Lacerda JT, Marcenes, W. (2007). Thresholds of restorative decision in dental caries treatment among dentists from small Brazilian cities. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 5:131-136.

Nicolau B, Netuveli G, Kim M, Sheiham A, Marcenes W. (2007). A life-course approach to assess psychosocial factors and periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 34:844-50.

Sanders AE, Slade GD, Turrell G, Spencer AJ, Marcenes W. (2007) Does psychological stress mediate social inequalities in tooth loss? Journal of Dental Research. 86:1166-1170.

Pau A, Croucher RE, Marcenes W. (2008). Determinants of perceived need for dental pain medication. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology. 36:279-86.

Ardenghi TM, Marcenes W, Sheiham A, Bönecker M. (2008). Maxillary anterior caries as a predictor of posterior caries in the primary dentition in pre-school Brazilian children. Journal of Dentistry for Children. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 20:125-31.

Castro, RA, Cortes MI, Leao AT, Portela MC, Souza IP, Tsakos G, Marcenes W, Sheiham A (2008). Child-OIDP index in Brazil: cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Health Quality Life Outcomes, 15:6-68

Huang B, Marcenes W, Croucher R, Hector M. (2009) Activities related to the occurrence of traumatic dental injuries in 15- to 18-year-olds. Dental Traumatology, 25:64-8.

Traebert J, Traiano ML, Armênio R, Barbieri DB, de Lacerda JT, Marcenes W. (2009). Knowledge of lay people and dentists in emergency management of dental trauma. Dental traumatology, 25:277-83.

de Vasconcelos Cunha Bonini GA, Marcenes W, Oliveira LB, Sheiham A, Bönecker M. (2009) Trends in the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children. Dent Traumatol. 25:594-8.

Bönecker M, Ardenghi TM, Oliveira LB, Sheiham A, Marcenes W. (2010) Trends in dental caries in 1 to 4 year-old children in a Brazilian city between 1997 and 2008. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 20:125-131.

Bernabé E, Marcenes W, Matherm J, Phillips C, Fortune F. (2010) Impact of Behcet’s Syndrome on health-related quality of life: influence of the type and number of symptoms.  Rheumatology , 49:2165-71.

Livny A, Sgan-Cohen H.D., Gunadi S., Marcenes W. (2010) Traumatic dental injuries and related factors among six grade schoolchildren in four Palestinian towns. Journal of Dental Traumatology. 26:330-4.

Bernabé E, Marcenes W. (2010) Periodontal disease and quality of life in British adults. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 37:968-72.

Bernabe E, Marcenes W. (2011). Income inequality and tooth loss in the United States. Journal of Dental Research, 90:724-9.

Research interests:

Marcenes' research programme has concentrated on establishing a new paradigm to further elucidate oral health inequalities from the social environment, through psychosocial factors, exploring behavioural and biological pathways to oral health. The main focus is on socio-psychological protective and risk factors and their interaction with upstream (i.e.: environment) and downstream (i.e.: behaviour) factors. His research programme includes a significant contribution from colleagues and students working under his supervision. His innovative research programme includes the first comprehensible study showing a relationship between oral health and socio-psychological circumstances. In this seminal study he demonstrated that oral health is related to work stress (risk factor) and marital quality (protective factor). In several collective works he demonstrated the harmful effects to oral health of belonging to low socio-economic groups, and living in socially and materially deprived areas, and of experiencing unfavorable socio-psychological circumstances (i.e: negative life events, daily hassles). Also, they showed the protective effect of favorable socio-psychological circumstances (positive life-events, social/family support) and socio-psychological status (Sense of coherence, locus of control, pro-social behaviour). Furthermore, they demonstrated the plausibility of these relationships through a behavioural pathway. In another seminal study they showed at a population level that income inequality (i.e.: relative poverty) was the main determinant of oral health rather than absolute living standards. More recently Marcenes has significantly contributed to the establishment of the life course theory to explain oral health inequalities. In a series of studies they showed that environmental conditions and poor biological resources in early life, and exposures throughout the life course are significant determinants of caries experience in adolescence through behavioural and biological pathways. House material at birth, birth weight, height (biological marker of general health resources in adolescents), family income, and father's level of punishment predicted high caries experience in adolescence life. In these studies, behavioural variables such as adolescents' high levels of sugar consumption, low daily tooth-brushing frequency and irregular dental attendance at present life were associated with low socioeconomic conditions at birth (house material, overcrowding and presence of a toilet inside the house) and at 13 years of age (family income, overcrowding and car ownership), as well as with low levels of education of the mothers and fathers. These findings provided some support for the argument that caries experience is “biologically programmed” in utero or early life, like other chronic diseases, as well as experiencing an adverse socioeconomic environment at birth and throughout the upbringing reduced the chances of consuming a healthy diet, gaining access to dental services, and adopting healthy behaviours such as frequent tooth-brushing with fluoride toothpaste, which in turn increased the risk of having high levels of dental caries experience in adolescence. More recently, they showed that even the response to treatment is related to socio-psychological factors. Patients with higher levels of emotional intelligence responded better to initial standardised periodontal treatment, while in another pilot study, patients experiencing higher levels of daily hassles did not respond well to initial standardised periodontal treatment in relation to the comparison group.