Institute of Dentistry

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Professor Michael Braden, BSc, PhD, FIM

Emeritus Professor


BSc (Lond),1957; PhD (Lond) 1962.
British Rubber Producers Research Association, 1951-1961. Most significant research- establishing the mechanism of ozone degradation of diene elastomers.
Appointed Lecturer in Dental Materials Science at the London Hospital Medical College 1961, in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, both to introduce a stronger scientific basis to the undergraduate teaching of dental students, and to initiate research. Promoted to Senior Lecturer 1963, and appointed Reader in 1968 by conferment of title. Appointed Professor of Biomaterials in Dentistry by Conferment of Title in 1973, with the formation of the Department of Biomaterials in Dentistry. The chair was established in 1992.

In 1990, was co-applicant with Professor W Bonfield CBE FRS(Director), the late Professor Denis Chapman, and Professor George Bentley for an Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, involving Queen Mary College, the London Hospital Medical College, the Royal Free Medical College, and the Institute of Orthopaedics. I was an Associate  Director i/c the Dental Programme, and Project Coordinator for the Optimised Bone Cement Project. After Professor Chapman's retirement I was also Deputy  Director.
The IRC was funded for 10 years, with Reviews at the end of two and five years.
Distinguished Scientist Award of the International Association for Dental research (Wilmer Souder Award) 1993. Gold Medal of  the British Society for the Study of Prosthetic Dentistry !993-the only non-clinical holder of this medal
Selected Invited Lectureships
Distinguished Lecturer Universities of Toronto, Mc Master,  Kingston, Canada 1992
Universities of  Umea, Gottenburg , 1982
NIH State of the Art Conference, Bethesda, Washington DC 1990.
Consultancies linked to the LHMC and IRC
Consultant to HM Armed Forces 1982-1993
Consultant and Rapporteur  to  the NHS Committee  on Priorities in Biomaterials Research, chaired by Professor Sir Colin Berry
PhD and related examinerships:
Universities of  Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield, Strathclyde, Glasgow,  Birmingham, Dundee, Aston, London.  University of  Umea, Sweden. Gutachter der Universität Halle Wittenberg.



Research interests:

On entering the Dental Materials field in 1961, perusal of text books and papers being published on the subject, I was struck as a  polymer scientist at the general primitive state of the scientific aspects. Therefore my early work was  aimed at investigating clinically relevant  areas from a scientific perspective. Thus publications 1-5 introduced  fracture mechanics, heat transfer, diffusion, rheology, visco[-elasticity in characterizing properties of dental materials. 6-8 introduced analyzing the composition and structure of materials, together with their chemistry of function. This in turn lead to the development of new clinical materials, and the expansion of the work into orthopaedic surgery(9), and  drug delivery systems. (10).
(9) lead to a new bone cement which had limited clinical trials lasting some 15 years. Furthermore  the reputation thus earned led  to our being asked to develop  new orthodox bone cements for an orthopaedic company, which have been on the market for some years.
Clearly with some 200 publications over the years, selection is difficult. The development of these areas has lead to collaboration with other centres, both in the UK and overseas, including joint work with clinicians.
The principles of fundamental studies allied with the development of new clinical materials has continued over the intervening years, and are mirrored in the current list of publications, both by myself, and colleagues.

Key Publications

Braden M. Characterisation of the rupture properties of impression materials.Dent.Pract.14: 67-71(1963)

Braden M..Heat conduction in teeth and the effect of lining materials. J.Dent.Res.43:  315-322(1964).

Braden M.The absorption of water by acrykic resins and other materials. J.Prosth.Dent.14: 307-316(1964)

Braden M. Viscosity and Consistency of Impression Rubbers. J.Dent.Res. 46: 429-433 (1967)

Braden M and Stafford GD. Visco-elasticity of some denture base materials. J.Dent.Res.47: 519-523 (1968).

Braden M.Tissue Conditioners 1) Composition and Structure. J.Dent.Res. 49: 145-148 (1970)

Braden M,Causton BE, Clarke RL. A polyether impression  rubber. J.Dent.Res.51:889-896(1972)

Braden M,Clarke RL,Pearson GJ, and Cambell Keys WA. A new temporary crown and bridge resin. Brit.Dent.J. 141: 269-272.

Behiri JC, Braden M, Khorasani SN, Wiwattanadate D, and Bonfield W. Advanced Bone Cement for Long Term Orthopaedic Implantations. Bioceramics. Volume 4 (1991)

Goodwin CJ, Braden M, Downes S, and Marshall NJ. A comparison between two methacrylate cements as delivery for bioactive human growth hormone. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 6: 590-596. (1995).

Publications since 2001

Riggs P D, Parker S, Braden M and Kalachandra S. Development of novel elastomer/methacrylate monomer soft lining materials.  J. Mater. Sci: Mater in Med. 12 : 359-364 (2001)

Parker S and Braden M.  The effect of particle size on the gelation of tissue conditioners.  Biomaterials 22 : 2039-2042 (2001)

Nazhat S. N, Parker S, Riggs P. D and Braden M. Isoprene/styrene/methacrylate monomer systems as denture soft lining materials: Effect of cross-linking.  Biomaterials 22 : 2087-2093 (2001)

Nazhat S.N, Parker S, Patel M.P and Braden M. Development and characterization of isoprene-styrene copolymer elastomer and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate mixtures for soft prosthetic applications.  Biomaterials 22 : 2411-2416 (2001)

Santos C, Clarke RL, Braden M, Guitan F, Davy KWM. Water absorption characteristics of dental composites incorporating hydroxyapatite filler. Biomaterials 23: 1897-1904 (2001)

Patel M. P, Johnstone M.B, Hughes F. J and Braden M.  The effect of two hydrophilic monomers on the water uptake of a heterocyclic methacrylate system.  Biomaterials 22 : 81-86 (2001)

Riggs P. D, Kinchesh P, Braden M and Patel M. P.  Nuclear magnetic imaging of an osmotic water uptake and delivery process.  Biomaterials 22 (No 5) 419-427 (2001)

Patel M. P, Cruchley A. T, Coleman D.C, Swai H, Braden M and Williams D. M. A polymeric system for the intra-oral delivery of an antifungal agent.  Biomaterials 22 : 2319-2324 (2001)

Patel M.P, Pavlovic P, Hughes F. J, King G.N, Cruchley A and Braden M. Release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from heterocyclic methacrylate polymer systems.  Biomaterials 22, 2081-2086 (2001)

Riggs P D, Parker S, Braden M. Development of butyl elastomer/methacrylate monomer systems as denture soft lining materials. Biomaterials 23 : 915-920 (2002)

Tilbrook D.A, Pearson G. J, Braden M, Coveney P.V. Prediction of a polymerization shrinkage using molecular modeling.  Journal of Polymer Science: Part B Polymer Physics (2003)

Scott G, Patel M, Braden M.  use of prepolymerised cement spacers to augment the femoral component in revision total knee arthroplasty.  Journal of Arthroplasty 18 : 769-774 (2003).

Nazhat S N, Parker S, Braden M. Silica-filled elastomer/methacrylate systems as soft liners. J. Biomat Sci, Poly Ed, 15 : 727-739 (2004).

Chowdhury M. A, Hill D.J.T, Whittaker A.K, Braden M, Patel M. P.  NMR imaging of the diffusion of water at 310K into semi-IPN's of PEM and Poly(HEMA-co-THFM) with and without chlorhexidine diacetate.  Biomacromolecules 5 : 1405-1411 (2004)

Chowdhury M, Hill D.J.T, Whittaker A. K, Braden M, Patel M. NMR imaging of water diffusion into PEM/P(HEMA-co-THFMA)semi-IPN Matrices.  Polymer Preprints 45 (2) 517 (2004)

Rahman F.F, Bonfield W, Cameron R.E, Patel M. P, Braden M, Pearson G. J, Tavakoli S. M. Water uptake of poly(ethyl methacrylate) tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate polymer systems modified with tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite.  Bioceramics 16.  Key Engineering Materials 254-256; 513-516 (2004)

AE Kaplan, J Williams, Billington RW, Braden M, Pearson GJ. Effect of variation in particle size on biaxial strengths of two conventional glass ionomer cements. J.Oral.Rehabil.31:373-379.(2004).

Braden M, LathamD, Patel MP. Observations on the swelling of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane)  networks by solvents. European Polymer Journal. 41:3069-3071.(2005)

Nallamuthu N, Braden M, Patel MP. Dimensional changes of  alginate impression materials. Journal of Materials Science:Materials in Medicine. 17:1205-1210. (2006).

Anderson P, Ahmed Y, Patel MP, Davis GR, Braden M. X-ray microtomic studies of novel radio-opaque polymeric materials for dental applications. Materials Science and Technology. 22:1094-1097. (2006)

Maccauro G, Cittadini A, Casarci M, Muratori F, De Angelis D, Piconi C, Rosa MA, Spadoni A, Braden M, Sgambato A. Methotrexate-added acrylic cement: biological and physical properties. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. On line- DOI 10.1007/s10856-006-0036-7

Gong C, Braden M, Patel MP, Rehman IU, Zhang, Darr JA. Controlled Release of chlorhexidine diacetatw from a porous methacrylate system: Supercritical Fluid Assisted Foaming and Impregnation. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. On line DOI 10.1002/jps.20850.


Pearson G. J, Williams J, Todhunter R, Clements D, Patel M. P and Braden M. Polymerisable resin compositions for use in dentistry.  European Patent Application 14.1.2001.

PhD Supervision

Public engagement

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