Institute of Dentistry

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Professor Helen Liversidge, BChD MSc PhD


Professor of Dental Anthropology

Telephone: +44 20 7882 8649
Room Number: Institute of Dentistry


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Helen Liversidge qualified in dentistry from Stellenbosch, South Africa. She worked in NHS and private general dental practice whilst at the same time completing an MSc (Mineralised Tissue Biology) and PhD (Human Tooth development in an archaeological population of known age) at University College London studying with Professors Alan Boyde and Christopher Dean (respectively). She joined Child Oral Health in the Dental Institute, Barts and The London, Queen Mary’s School of Medicine and Dentistry in 1985. Helen teaches undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in clinical paediatric dentistry and has supervised fifteen postgraduate research projects including four PhD’s (students from England, Ireland, Greece, Libya, Italy, Thailand, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates). All these have presented at national/international meetings and published their results. She organises the London Oral Biology Group which meet several times a year for research meeting and attracts scientists with interests in dental anatomy, physiology, zoology and palaeontology.


Research Interests:

Research areas include quantifying the developing dentition, radiographic assessment of developing teeth, accuracy of age assessment using developing teeth and global population differences in tooth formation. Regular international and national presentations at research meetings in the fields of Dental Research, Dental Morphology, Paediatric Dentistry, Physical Anthropology, Forensic Odontology and Human Biology.

Recent research include the London Atlas of tooth development and eruption, in 14 languages, image and software with PhD student Dr Sakher AlQahtani and Prof Mark Hector (Dean , Dundee Dental School). This has become the accepted method to estimate age from the developing dentition. This project was prompted by a question from a forensic odontologist after the tsunami December 2004. Other recent work compared the accuracy of published age estimation methods using developing teeth including the third molar. Another large longterm research project is documenting tooth formation in worldwide population groups. This is a collaborating with paediatric dentists, anatomists, anthropologists, archaelogist colleagues around the world using dental radiographs.  Data have been collected from London UK (Bangladeshi and White), Australian Aborigine, Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand, Japanese,  three groups from Malaysia, South African Blacks and Cape Coloureds, Nigerians, Inuits in Canada and Hispanics and Native Americans in New Mexico.  Other collaborations include West and East Africa.  Research projects with clinical application include predicting third molar and second premolar agenesis from adjacent developing teeth.


Key Publications

Rosas et al. Growth pattern of Neandertals 2017

Rosas et al. Growth pattern of Neandertals 2017 [PDF 553KB]

AlQahtani SJ, Hector MP. Liversidge HM. 2014. Accuracy of dental age estimation charts: Schour and Massler, Ubelaker and the London Atlas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154:70-78.;jsessionid=CB7B6A76DD9DCC7DC6719ED5BBA36871.f04t01

Dean MC, Liversidge HM, Elamin F. 2014. Combining radiographic and histological data for dental development to compare growth in the past and present. Annals of Human Biology 41:336-347.

Wilmott SE, Hector MP, Liversidge HM. 2013. Accuracy of estimating age from eruption levels of mandibular teeth [PDF 604KB]. Dental Anthropology Journal  3:56-62

Elamin F, Liversidge HM. 2013. Malnutrition Has No Effect on the Timing of Human Tooth Formation. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72274.

Liversidge HM. 2012. The assessment and interpretation of Demirjian, Goldstein and Tanner's dental maturity. Annals of Human Biology
doi: 10.3109/03014460.2012.716080.

Liversidge HM. 2011. Similarity in dental maturation in two ethnic groups of London children. Annals of Human Biology
doi: 10.3109/03014460.2011.609565
Erratum Ann Hum Biol. 2012 Sep;39(5):459.

Liversidge HM, Marsden PH. 2010. Estimating age and the likelihood of having attained 18 years of age using mandibular third molars. British Dental Journal

Liversidge HM, Smith BH, Maber M. 2010. Bias and accuracy of age estimation using developing teeth in 946 children. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

AlQahtani SJ, Liversidge HM, Hector MP. 2010. The London atlas of human tooth development and eruption. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142:481-490.

Liversidge HM. 2008. Timing of human mandibular third molar formation. Annals of Human Biology 35:294-321, Errata Annals Human Biology 2008 35:452-3.
Journal link

Liversidge HM. 2008. Predicting mandibular third molar agenesis from second molar formation. Acta Stomatologica Croatica 42:311-317.

Liversidge HM, N Chaillet, H Mornstad, M Nystrom, K Rowlings, G Willems. 2006. Timing of Demirjian's tooth formation stages. Annals of Human Biology 33:454-470.

Liversidge HM, Molleson T. (2004) Variation in Crown and Root Formation and Eruption of Human Deciduous Teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 123:172-180.

Liversidge HM. (2003) Chapter: Worldwide variation in human dental development. In: Growth and Development in the Genus Homo. Editors JL Thompson, A Nelson, G Krovitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 73-113.

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